What is chemistry?

Chemistry Chemistry is an important branch of science. In this, the composition, structure, properties of substances, and changes during chemical reactions are studied. The dissolution of the word chemistry is – juice + ion. It means; Study of juices (liquids). In chemistry, atoms, molecules, crystals (rays) of substances, and the energy released or used during chemical processes are also studied.

This science mainly focuses on the study of atoms, ions, and molecules, which in turn make up elements and compounds. In this, chemical species establish relationships with each other through chemical bonds. Another thing about chemistry that is very important is that chemistry also studies the relationship between matter and energy.

In chemistry, along with the properties of the composition-structures of elements and compounds, the changes in them are also studied. Also, the energy that is released or absorbed during these changes is also studied in chemistry.

Chemistry is a central science or basic science, as it links other branches of science, such as astronomy, physical science, material science, biology, geology, etc. In chemistry, the matter is composed of atomic or subatomic particles such as electrons, protons, and neutrons.

Branches Of Chemistry

Chemistry is a very broad subject. At the same time, due to the adjustment of other subjects, it is becoming more elaborate every day. Many types of substances and substances are studied in chemistry, which is completely different from each other. Along with this, some new branches of chemistry have also emerged due to new scientific experiments, so scientists have divided it into many sub-branches to make the study of this subject simple and easy. Here we are telling you about the major branches of chemistry –

  • physical Chemistry
  • inorganic chemicals
  • organic chemistry
  • analytical chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • industrial chemicals
  • medicinal chemicals
  • nuclear chemistry
  • agricultural chemicals
  • environmental chemistry
  • green chemistry

Physical Chemistry –

In this branch of chemistry, the phenomena occurring in chemical systems are explained on the basis of physical concepts. The foundation of the physical chemistry branch was laid with the law of the indestructibility of matter. However, physical chemistry was not recognized as a separate branch of chemistry until the late 19th century. Later, the work of Van’t Hoff, Wilhelm Ostwald, and Arrhenius determined the framework of physical chemistry. In this branch of chemistry, the concept of atom and molecule got placed from the laws of constant proportion, multiple proportions, and mutual proportion and Avogadro’s law, Gelusac’s law, etc.

Check Also;- Physical Chemistry Notes

Various methods have been developed in physical chemistry to calculate the weight of atoms and molecules. On the other hand, Boyle’s and Charles’ laws of gases (P´V = R T), Dalton’s law of partial pressure (P = p1 + p2 + p3 + ……….) and Graham’s diffusion laws revolutionized the branch of physical chemistry. played the part. Along with this, ideas related to osmotic pressure (PV = R T ; P = R T C) gave new dimensions to physical chemistry in understanding the nature of solutions. In this branch of chemistry, Raoult’s equation of vapor pressure proved to be very important in relation to solutions.

Inorganic Chemistry –

The study of inorganic compounds is a subfield of chemistry known as inorganic chemistry. This is the branch of chemistry under which substances other than carbon are studied in which carbon is absent. An inorganic compound is generally a chemical compound in which a carbon–hydrogen bond is not present, i.e. a compound that is not an organic compound.

Inorganic chemistry is the study of the behavior of compounds as well as their properties, their physical and chemical characteristics. All the elements of the periodic table except carbon and hydrogen are included in the list of inorganic compounds. In simple language, inorganic chemistry is the opposite of organic chemistry. The substances which do not have carbon-hydrogen bonds are metals, salts, substances, etc. inorganic.

There are about 100,000 inorganic compounds present on earth. Among these, many elements like titanium, iron, nickel, and copper are very important. Inorganic chemistry also has applications in many industries, such as catalysis, materials science, pigments, surfactants, coatings, drugs, fuels, and agriculture.

In inorganic chemistry, the properties and organization, etc. of chemical substances and substances made of all the elements except carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, etc. are studied.

Classification of Inorganic Compounds

Acid: Acids are compounds that dissolve in water and produce hydrogen ions H+. For example, hydrochloric acid, citric acid, sulfuric acid, vinegar, etc. An example of an acidic reaction is HCl+H2O→H++Cl−

Base: A base is a compound that produces hydroxyl ions when placed in water. For example, potassium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, ammonia, and sodium hydroxide produce OH− ions when dissolved in water. KOH+H2O→K++OH−

Salt: Salt is a substance that is obtained as a result of the reaction between an acid and a base. The table salt of sodium hydroxide is one of the common examples of salt.

Oxide: Oxides are compounds that contain one oxygen atom.

Organic Chemistry –

This is a major branch of chemistry. In organic chemistry, the scientific study of the structure, properties, chemical reactions, and formation of chemical compounds mainly containing carbon and hydrogen molecules is done. It can contain carbon and hydrogen as well as other molecules, such as nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, silicon, sulfur, halogens, etc. Carbon combines with most of the elements to form compounds and molecules. That’s why there are many compounds and molecules of carbon. Later a separate branch was developed for their study. In which the properties and organization of all compounds and substances made of carbon are studied.

Industrial Chemistry –

This is an important branch of chemistry. In this, substances are manufactured on a very large scale. In this, all the reactions, principles, and rules are used in the substances and substances produced in industrial units on a large scale, and all of them are studied under the industrial chemical branch of chemistry.

Medicinal Chemistry –

Medicinal chemistry is the branch in which the drugs used for the diagnosis of diseases occurring in humans as well as other organisms are manufactured by using chemicals. In pharmacology, the properties, uses, organization, and preparation methods of medicinal substances, etc. are studied.

Analytical Chemistry –

In this branch of chemistry, identification, quantification, and refinement of chemical constituents present in various natural and artificial substances are done. It is of two types – qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis. Qualitative analysis identifies the components present in a sample and quantitative analysis determines the amount of these components. This science is used in forensic science, bioanalysis, medical science, environmental science, and analysis of substances.

Agricultural Chemistry –

Agricultural chemistry is that branch of chemistry, under which different types of biocidal substances are manufactured. By studying these substances as well as soil etc., methods are found to increase agricultural yield.

Biochemistry –

In biochemistry, the study of chemical properties present in small living beings and the study of chemical substances received by them in animals and plants, knowledge of their organization and properties is obtained.

Nuclear Chemistry –

It is a subfield of chemistry. Under this, radioactivity, nuclear processes (such as nuclear transmutation), and nuclear properties are studied. In this, apart from the chemistry of radioactive elements like actinides and radium, radon, chemistry related to a nuclear reactor is studied. The study of the behavior of nuclear waste after its storage is also its main area.

Environmental Chemistry –

Environmental chemistry is a very important subject from a social point of view. In this, the impact of the environment on life, pollution reduction, management, etc. are studied. The study of the behavior of environmental pollutants and their environmental effects on air, water, and soil environments, as well as their effects on human health and the natural environment, comes under environmental chemistry.

Along with this, environmental science also includes aspects of biology, toxicology, biochemistry, public health, and epidemiology as well as biological chemistry, analytical chemistry, physical chemistry, and inorganic chemistry.

Green Chemistry –

According to American scientist Paul Anastas, green chemistry emphasizes the use and development of those chemical substances and processes in which the use and production of toxic pollutant substances is not minimal. Green chemistry focuses on preventing or reducing pollution at its source. In fact, green chemistry is not a new chemistry, but a method to reduce the side effects of chemicals and chemical methods.

Apart from these major branches of chemistry, there are many cross-disciplinary branches, such as medicinal chemistry, neurochemistry, materials chemistry, nuclear chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, geochemistry, astrochemistry, polymer chemistry, cluster chemistry, Electrochemistry, Environmental Chemistry, Food Chemistry, General Chemistry, Nanochemistry, Solid State Chemistry, Thermochemistry, and Thermochemistry, etc.

Chemistry in our daily life

Chemical reactions are constantly happening around us. At the same time, thousands of chemical reactions take place in our bodies every day. From the digestion of food to the movement of muscles – all bodily functions in the body involve chemical reactions. Some other examples of chemistry in our daily life are given below-

Process of Photosynthesis – It is a chemical reaction. Through this process, plants convert water, sunlight, and carbon dioxide into glucose and oxygen. This process is the foundation on which the entire food chain rests.

Soaps and Detergents – Soaps and detergents used for hygiene in daily life use a chemical process called emulsification. Soaps and detergents are also produced by a chemical process called saponification.

Sunscreen – We use sunscreen every day to protect ourselves from the harmful UV-A and UV-B radiations of the sun. These are also based on chemicals. These lotions and creams contain a combination of inorganic and organic compounds that filter out ultraviolet radiation, causing minimal damage to our skin.

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