The Making of a Global World Handwritten Notes | Class 10 Free PDF Download

The Making of a Global World Notes, History Class 10 The Making of a Global World, History Chapters of The Making of a Global World, Class 10 History Notes , NCERT Explanation, The Making of a Global World Explanation, Notes on Making of a Global World,The Making of Global World Class 10 Notes PDF Download

Table of Contents

Class 10 History chapter 3 The Making of a Global World Notes

Are you a class 10th student, and you get the most important information about NCERT History chapter titled “Making of a Global World” in simple language? If yes, then you have come to the right place today.

Today we are here knowing about all those important points, the truth is directly related to the 10th class history chapter “The Making of a Global World”, and you can also get all these things and information from thousands of other students in this chapter I will be able to achieve

Notes of chapter 4 – The Making of a global World – class 10 Notes

Along with this, with the help of our important and point-to-point notes, you will also be able to make yourself so capable that you can easily solve any type of question that comes from this chapter “The Making of a Global World”. Will keep watching, you will get the best marks in your exams.

Features of The Making of Global World Handwritten Notes

  1. Personalization: These Handwritten notes are often more personal and intimate than typed notes, as they are written by hand and reflect the unique handwriting of the person who wrote them.
  2. Creativity: These Handwritten notes allow for more creativity in terms of layout, font, and formatting.
  3. Emotional connection: These Handwritten notes can convey emotions more effectively than typed notes, as they often include personalized touches such as doodles or decorative elements.
  4. Uniqueness: These Handwritten notes are often one-of-a-kind and cannot be replicated, making them special and meaningful to the recipient.
  5. Physical presence: These Handwritten notes have a physical presence that typed notes do not, which can make them more meaningful and memorable to the recipient.

Topics Covered in the Notes

You can refer to or see Table of Content of this post to know all the topics Covered in this note.

So let us now explore “The Making of a Global World”. This is a summary or crash course of sorts, which will help you a lot to enhance your knowledge on the subject.

What is the meaning of The Making Of A Global World?

Globalization refers to the integration of markets into a global economy, which leads to an increase in the interconnectedness of national economies. By taking an idea of the history of globalization in this chapter, students can better understand the reasons that led to such social and economic changes.

The Industrial Revolution of the 19th century was one of the important periods in the history of globalisation. And “The Making Of A Global World” tells us how globalization had an impact on the world as well as the Indian economy.

The Pre-modern World

Globalization refers to an economic system that has emerged over the past 50 years. But, there has been a long history of building a global world, as have trade, migration, people looking for work, movement of capital, and more. Since ancient times, travelers, merchants, priests, and pilgrims have traveled long distances in search of knowledge, opportunity, and spiritual fulfillment, or to escape persecution. An active coastal trade as early as 3000 BCE linked the “Indus Valley” civilizations with present-day West Asia.

Silk Routes Link the World

The Silk Road is a fine example of vibrant pre-modern trade and cultural links between distant parts of the world. Several silk routes have so far been identified by historians, which were used to connect vast areas of Asia, by land and sea, and link Asia with Europe and North Africa. Precious metals such as gold and silver then flowed from Europe to Asia, in exchange for textiles and spices from India.

Food Tour: Spaghetti and Potato

Food provides many examples of long-distance cultural exchange. New crops were then introduced by traders and travelers. Prepared foods such as “noodles” traveled west from China in the form of “spaghetti”. Our ancestors were not familiar with common food items like potato, soya, groundnut, maize, tomato, chili, sweet potato etc. about five centuries ago. Many of our common foods came from the “American Indians,” the original inhabitants of the Americas.

Conquest, Disease and Trade

The Indian Ocean, centuries ago, was known to be a bustling trade route with goods, people, knowledge, customs, etc., with thousands of people crossing its waters every day. The entry of Europeans helped redirect these flows towards Europe.

America’s vast land and abundant crops of minerals began to transform business and life everywhere. Also, by the mid-16th century, the Portuguese and Spanish conquest and colonization of the Americas was underway decisively.

The Europeans’ most powerful weapon was not a conventional military weapon, but germs such as “smallpox” that carried their people around the world, and later proved to be a deadly killer.

By the 19th century, poverty and hunger were common in Europe. By the 18th century, China and India were among the richest countries in the world. However, from the 15th century, China is said to have restricted foreign contacts and retreated into isolation. And then Europe emerged as the center of a world trade.

19th century (1815–1914)

In the 19th century, economic, political, social, cultural and technological factors played their part in complex ways to change society and reshape external relations. Also three flows or movements were identified by economists during this time.

  • The first is the flow of trade, which broadly refers to the trade of goods such as cloth or wheat.
  • The second is the flow of labor i.e. migration of people in search of employment.
  • And the third is the movement of capital over long distances for short-term or long-term investments.

World Economy Takes Shape

Self-sufficiency in food meant low living standards and social strife in 19th century Britain. And it arose because of the increase in population from the end of the 18th century. Then the “Corn Laws” were enacted which meant a ban on the import of corn.

British agriculture was unable to compete with imports and as a result vast areas of land were left barren. And so, thousands of men and women migrated to the cities or to foreign countries.

Then in Britain, food prices fell and in the mid-19th century, industrial development led to higher incomes and more food imports. And to meet British demand, land was cleared for the expansion of food production, then in Eastern Europe, Russia, America and Australia.

But managing to connect the railways to agricultural areas and building houses for the people required capital and labor. And London greatly facilitated the migration of people from Europe to America and Australia in the 19th century in terms of finance and labour.

By the 1890s, a global agricultural economy had taken a different shape, adopting complex changes in labor movement patterns, capital flows, ecology and technology. Then in West Punjab, the British Indian government built a network of irrigation canals to transform the semi-desert waste into fertile agricultural land for growing wheat and cotton for export. Even the cultivation of cotton was expanded throughout the world to meet the demand for raw materials of the British textile mills.

Role of Technology

There were some important inventions in the field of technology such as – railways, steamships, telegraph, etc., which completely changed the world of the 19th century. But technological advances were often the result of larger social, political, and economic factors.

For example, colonization spurred new investment and improvements in transport, with faster railways, lighter wagons and larger ships helping to move food more cheaply and quickly from distant farms to final markets.

By the 1870s, animals were also shipped from America to Europe. Meat was then considered an expensive luxury out of reach of the European poor. But now to break the earlier monotony of bread and potatoes, many people could now include meat, butter and eggs in their diet.

Late nineteenth-century Colonialism

At the end of the 19th century, trade flourished and markets expanded. But, there is also a darker side to this, as in many parts of the world, the expansion of trade and closer ties to the world economy meant a loss of freedom and livelihood.

In 1885, the great European powers met in Berlin to finalize the partition of Africa among themselves. Britain and France greatly increased their overseas territories. And Belgium and Germany became the new colonial powers.

Also in the late 1890s the US became a colonial power, taking over some of Spain’s former colonies.

Rinderpest, or the Cattle Plague

In Africa, in the 1890s, a rapid outbreak of cattle plague significantly affected people’s livelihoods and the local economy. Africa had an abundance of land but was sparsely populated in comparison. And in the late 19th century, Europeans were attracted to Africa because of its vast resources of land and minerals.

Europeans came to Africa hoping to establish plantations and mines to produce crops and minerals for export to Europe. But there was an unexpected problem, which was the acute shortage of workers willing to work for wages.

Then the inheritance laws were changed and as per the new law, only one member of a family was allowed to inherit the land. In the late 1880s, the disease “rinderpest” was carried to Africa by infected cattle imported from British Asia to feed Italian troops invading “Eritrea” in East Africa and spread throughout Africa. And there the loss of cattle it caused completely destroyed African livelihoods.

Labor Migration from India

Girmitiya means (contracted) laborers reflect the two-sided nature of the world of the 19th century. Rapid economic growth also brought great suffering, as it emerged a world of high incomes for some and poverty for others, technological advances in some areas and new forms of coercion in others.

In India, indentured laborers were hired under contract and most of them came from the present-day areas of the arid districts of eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, central India and Tamil Nadu. And the main destinations of Indian indentured migrants were the Caribbean islands (mainly Trinidad, Guyana and Suriname), Mauritius and Fiji.

Indentured labor was also recruited for the tea gardens in Assam. The indenture of the 19th century has been described as a ‘new system of slavery’. In Trinidad the annual Muharram procession was turned into a riotous carnival called ‘Hosse’, attended by activists of all races and religions.

Similarly, the protest religion of Rastafarianism also reflects social and cultural ties with the Indian diaspora in the Caribbean. And from the 1900s, India’s nationalist leaders began to oppose the system of indentured labor as humiliating and cruel. Then by the year 1921 it was completely abolished.

Indian entrepreneurs in abroad

People needed a lot of capital to grow food and other crops for the world market. Therefore, the humble farmers “Shikaripuri Shroff” and “Nattukottai Chettiar” were among several groups of bankers and merchants who financed export agriculture in Central and Southeast Asia, for which they either used their own money or borrowed money from Europeans. Borrowed from banks.

Indian Trade, Colonialism and the Global Order

Cotton was exported from India to Europe. Then a duty was imposed on the import of cloth in Britain. As a result, the arrival of fine Indian cotton began to dwindle. In the 19th century, British manufacturers flooded the Indian market. By helping Britain balance its deficit, India played a very important role in the world economy of the late 19th century.

Britain’s sizeable trade surplus in India also helped pay the so-called ‘domestic duty’, which included private remittances by British officials and merchants, interest payments on India’s foreign loans, and pensions of British officials in India.

Inter-war Economy

World War I (1914–18) was fought in Europe, but its effects were felt all over the world. During this period the world experienced widespread economic and political instability and another devastating war.

Wartime Transformations

World War I was fought between the Allies – Britain, France and Russia and the US which joined later; And these included the Central Powers Germany, Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Turkey. The war lasted for more than four years involving the major industrialized nations of the world.

Considered to be the first modern industrial war, it saw the use of machine guns, tanks, aircraft, chemical weapons, etc. on a large scale. Also during the war, industries were reorganized to produce war related goods.

Britain borrowed large sums of money from American banks as well as the American public, turning America from an international debtor to an international debtor.

Post-war Recovery

In the post-war economic recovery, the world’s leading economies such as Britain faced a prolonged crisis. At that time industries developed in India and Japan, while Britain was engaged in war.

After the war Britain found it difficult to regain its old position of dominance in the Indian market and compete with Japan internationally.

And at the end of the war, Britain was burdened with huge foreign debts.

At the same time, anxiety and uncertainty about work became a permanent part of the post-war landscape.

The rise of mass production and consumption

The US economy recovered rapidly and resumed its strong growth of the early 1920s. Mass production is one of the important features of the American economy that began in the late 19th century.

Henry Ford was a well-known pioneer of mass production, and a major car manufacturer who set up his own car plant in Detroit. The T Model Ford was the world’s first mass-produced car.

Fordist industrial practices soon spread to America and were copied in Europe in the 1920s. Then the demand for refrigerators, washing machines etc. also increased rapidly, which was once again financed by loans. In 1923, the US resumed exporting capital to the rest of the world and once again became the largest foreign creditor.

The Great Depression

The period of the Great Depression, which began around 1929 and lasted until the mid-1930s, saw a catastrophic decline in output, employment, income, and trade in much of the world. And the most affected areas in this were the agricultural sector and the community. And a combination of many factors had given rise to this situation. The first factor was agricultural overproduction.

The second reason was in the mid-1920s, when many countries financed their investments through loans from the US. And the rest of the world was affected by the repayment of US loans in different ways.

America was also badly affected by the depression. Unfortunately, the American banking system collapsed as thousands of banks went bankrupt and were forced to close.

India and the Great Depression

Indian business was immediately affected by this recession. Agricultural prices fell sharply but even so, the colonial government refused to reduce revenue demands. In those recessionary years, India became an exporter of precious metals, especially gold. Rural India was thus seen with considerable unrest when Mahatma Gandhi launched the civil disobedience movement in 1931 at the height of the depression.

Rebuilding the World Economy: The Post-War Era

Two decades after the end of World War I, World War II broke out. It was fought between the Axis Powers (primarily Nazi Germany, Japan, and Italy) and the Allies (Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States). And for six years this war continued on land, sea, and air.

The war caused enormous economic devastation and social disruption. Post-war reconstruction was shaped by two important influences. First, America emerged as the dominant economic, political and military power in the Western world. The second was the dominance of the Soviet Union.

Post-war settlement and the Bretton Woods institutions

Two major lessons were drawn from the inter-war economic experience. First, mass production cannot be sustained without mass communication. The second lesson deals with the economic relations of a country with the outside world. The Bretton Woods conference established the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to deal with external surpluses and deficits of its member countries.

The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank) was established to finance post-war reconstruction. And the IMF and the World Bank began financial operations in 1947.

Early post-war years

Bretton Woods inaugurated an era of unprecedented growth in trade and income for Western industrialized nations and Japan. During this decade, technology and enterprise spread around the world.

Decolonization and Independence

After the end of World War II, large parts of the world were still under European colonial rule. The IMF and the World Bank were designed to meet the financial needs of industrialized countries. From the late 1950s the IMF and the World Bank shifted their attention more towards developing countries.

Most developing countries did not benefit from the rapid growth of Western economies in the 1950s and 1960s. They organized into a group called the Group of 77 (G-77) and also demanded a New International Economic Order (NIEO).

NIEO stands for a system that will give them real control over their natural resources, greater development assistance, fairer prices for raw materials and better access for their manufactured goods to markets in developed countries.

The End of Bretton Woods and the Beginning of Globalization

Since the 1960s, the rising cost of its foreign involvement had weakened America’s finances and competitive strength. In the mid-1970s, the international financial system also changed and the industrial world also came under the grip of unemployment.

MNCs started relocating their production to Asian countries with low wages. And China became an attractive destination for investment by foreign multinationals.

Also in the last two decades, the economic geography of the world has changed as countries like India, China and Brazil have undergone rapid economic transformation.

Making of a Global World Class 10 Handwritten Notes

Becoming a globalized world

  • To understand this chapter, it is very important to understand globalization.
  • What is globalization?

            Globalization is the transfer of people, goods and jobs from one country to another.

  • As India was discovered by Vasco da Gama and America was discovered by Columbus
  • Both globalization and industrialization have changed daily life.
  • India and China used to be the richest and wealthiest countries in the world till the 18th century, they dominated Asian trade.
  • To know this, we have to know how Europe became the biggest centre of world trade.

Before the modern era

silk route

  • The silk route was a very ancient route, which connected one country to another and connected continent to continent.
  • This route started even before BC
  • It was also used till the 15th century, which also connected many continents.
  • The main ones were: – Connected Africa, North America and Europe with Asia

why do we know it from the silk route

  • That is because first of all this route was used by Chinese people to trade silk, which was also called Chinese silk.
  • Then the Indian people started the movement of spices, Indian goods, silver, gold and many other things.
  • Exchange of goods as well as trade and culture began

Food trip

  • As traders and travelers moved from one country to another, food items also moved, for example
  • Noodle came from China Pasta came from Arab country


  • Many times there was a lot of change in life after the arrival of new crops.
  • Using a simple potato changed the life of the poor of Europe, their food became better and their average life expectancy increased.
  • Similarly, Ireland had become completely dependent on potatoes.
  • In the mid-1840s, people starved to death when the potato crop failed due to disease.

Victory, Disease and Trade

  • From the 15th to the 16th century, Europe began expanding the world through sea routes as it sought trading partners.
  • At the same time the two most important powerful countries were Portugal and Spain.
  • Columbus discovered America as Vasco da Gama discovered India.
  • The Portuguese and Spain began colonizing the Americas
  • Europeans won not only by the power of their army but also with the help of germs.
  • because officers carried germs like smallpox with them
  • Due to being separated from the world for millions of years, the body of American people did not have immunity to avoid these diseases caused by European people.

19th century

  • After the 19th century the world started changing very fast.
  • In this economic, political, social, cultural and technical work had transformed the whole society.
  • Foreign relations began to grow even more
  • Three flows in particular were very important in these years

trade flow

  • mainly limited to trade in commodities (such as cloth or wheat) etc. in the 19th century

labor flow

  • In this people move from one place to another in search of work.
  • For this reason, about 5 crore people of Europe left Europe due to unemployment and settled in Australia and America.

flow of capital

  • In which the capital is invested in remote areas for some time.
  • In this, the people of America were at the forefront because they had more money to invest.
  • That’s why they started investing their capital in other countries.

Rise of the world economy

  • To understand this we have to look at the UK economy
  • The ‘Corn Law’ was in force in Britain till the 18th century.

           Under this law, Britain could not import food from any country.

  • After a few days, the population in Britain increased enormously and the demand for food increased.
  • Now when the demand for food increased, the demand for agro-based goods also started increasing.
  • Government abolished corn law even before starvation
  • Because of which Britain has now started importing food items from traders of different countries, due to which there was a change in the lack of food in the country and development started in the country.

during the corn laws

  • increased demand for food
  • population increased
  • food prices rise

After removal of corn law

  • business growth
  • surplus food
  • growth spurt
  • Business only helps in the development of a country.

how did business grown-up 

  • new ships built
  • railway was built
  • in which the railway station
  • For this, laborers were needed, laborers had to be paid, due to which there was an inflow of capital.
  • Food moved as goods were manufactured
  • Means everything went on connecting with each other which we call globalization
  • Technology is a major contributor to globalization

contribution of technology

  • Railways, ships, communication systems etc. are all the result of technology.
  • Without this, we cannot even imagine the changes that came in the 19th century, that means globalization cannot be imagined.
    • For example, we understand the trade between America and Europe.
    • Only live animals were traded until the 1870s
    • but live animals used to be very expensive
    • used to die or get sick on long journeys
    • causing many to lose weight
    • Eating meat was an expensive affair and beyond the reach of Europe’s poor.
    • To eliminate all these problems, a ship with a refrigerator was made.
    • With the help of which animals were cut and converted into mass and after that animal meat was sent everywhere to America, Australia, New Zealand.
    • Not only did it reduce the cost of sea travel, but the price of meat also fell.

European rule in Africa

  • Europeans rule in Africa
  • When he came, it was for business, gradually he started establishing his rule.
  • Europeans wanted to cultivate horticulture in Africa and exploit mines so they could be shipped back to Europe
  • But there was no practice of working for salary.
  • All the people in Africa were self-sufficient because the population was less and the land was more.
  • All the people did animal husbandry and grazed animals, so the people there were not ready to work as laborers.
  • Europeans used many tactics to recruit labor
  • but all failed
  • like
  • heavily taxed
  • Succession law was made to remove the tenants from the land
  • under which only one member of the family will get the ancestral property
  • Free movement of miners was banned

rinderpest or cattle plague

  • Rinderpest spread rapidly in Africa in the late 1880s
  • Due to which 90% percent of animals died
  • Now the remaining cattle were taken over to push the African people into the labor market. Now the African people had no other work, so they had only one option left, which was to work for the Europeans.

indentured labor from India

  • It means take the laborers on hire for a fixed time period and take them to another country and give them work.
  • In the 10th century, lakhs of laborers from India and China were taken to distant countries for plantations, mines and construction of roads and railways.
  • Most of India’s indentured labor came from the dry regions of eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, central India and Tamil Nadu.
  • gave false information to immigrants
    • where do they go
    • what to do
    • what will be the mode of travel
    • What will be the conditions of work and life
  • No correct information was given about it, due to which it was also called the new slavery, but it was completely abolished in 1921.

Indian Entrepreneurs Abroad

  • Capital was needed to grow crops and fertilizers for the world market.
  • Shikaripuri Shroff of Nattukottai Chattiyar for him
  • These were among the many banks and merchants who paid taxes for export-oriented agriculture in Central and Southeast Asia.
  • For this, he either used to invest money from his pocket or took loans from European banks.
  • Indian traders and moneylenders also followed the European colonizers in Africa.
  • The people of India had opened their large emporiums at the port, in which the Hyderabadi Sindhis were at the forefront, after which they had opened large emporiums around the world by the decade of 1807.

India Colonialism and the Global Order

  • The change in Indian trade came when Britain banned the import of cotton because after that the cultivation of cotton in Britain started increasing very fast.
  • And Indians also had to compete with other countries for clothing
  • Cotton cloth accounted for about 30% of exports around 1800, falling to 15% in 1815 and 3% by 1870
  • The export of manufactured goods was decreasing, at the same rate the export of raw materials was also decreasing.
  • For example, from 1812 to 1871, raw cotton exports increased from 5% to 35%.
  • Indigo was also cultivated on a large scale to dye clothes.
  • A large amount of opium was exported to China from the 1820s.
  • Tea and other goods were imported from China in exchange for opium.
  • But if we talk about Britain, then compared to the goods that Britain used to send to India, the price of goods sent from India to Britain used to be much higher.
  • The change in Indian trade came when Britain banned the import of cotton because after that the cultivation of cotton in Britain started increasing very fast.
  • And Indians also had to compete with other countries for clothing
  • Cotton cloth accounted for about 30% of exports around 1800, falling to 15% in 1815 and 3% by 1870
  • The export of manufactured goods was decreasing, at the same rate the export of raw materials was also decreasing.
  • For example, from 1812 to 1871, raw cotton exports increased from 5% to 35%.
  • Indigo was also cultivated on a large scale to dye clothes.
  • A large amount of opium was exported to China from the 1820s.
  • Tea and other goods were imported from China in exchange for opium.
  • But if we talk about Britain, then compared to the goods that Britain used to send to India, the price of goods sent from India to Britain used to be much higher.

economy between the world wars

  • The First World War was mainly fought in Europe but its impact was felt all over the world.
  • World War I was fought between the camps
  • the first of which was the Allies (Britain, France and Russia)
  • Second was the Central Powers (Germany, Austria, Hungary and Ottoman Turkey)
  • During this war America became a creditor country instead of a creditor country.
  • During wartime
    • demand increased
    • production increased
    • employment increased
  • but after the war
    • demand fell
    • production decreased
    • employment also decreased
  • Because the number of laborers started decreasing in the gunpowder that was being made, then the employment of the laborers also decreased.
  • Before the First World War, only East Asians exported wheat to Europe.
  • But at the time of the world war there was more demand for industrial goods.
  • Hence agriculture based production was also reduced.
  • America and Canada took advantage of this, they increased the centers of production along with industrial goods.
  • As soon as the war ended, the production of wheat also started increasing and many traders also came in.

The Making of Global World Class 10 Notes PDF Download

Today I’m going to share with you The Making of Global World Class 10 PDF Notes which you can download for free using the direct download link given Below 👇.

As you know, the Making of a Global World is a chapter of a Class 10 history book. You can download the entire notes of The Making of Global World chapter in the format of pdf from this post.

How to Make Class 10 History Chapter 4 Notes Pdf

You don’t need to make or create a handwritten notes of the Making of a Global World. We have already compiled all the notes in pdf format and uploaded it here. You can easily download the making of a Global World Handwritten Notes PDF below.

The Making of Global World Class 10 Notes PDF Overview

PDF NameThe Making of Global World Notes for Class 10 PDF
No.of PDFs 2
PDF Size130 KB
The Making of Global World Notes for Class 10 PDF

Download The Making of Global World Notes for Class 10 PDF

Click on the download button to download the complete notes of The Making of Global World chapter in the format of PDF.

I hope that today you must have got to learn something new. If you learned something new today, then do read the rest of our articles as well so that you get to learn something new everyday, and share this article with your friends and acquaintances who need it. Thank you.

ICSE Class 10 History & Civics Textbook Notes | Free PDF Download

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

What do you understand by The making of a global world?

Globalization is often referred to as an economic system that has emerged over the past 50 years. And there has been a long history of trade, migration of people in search of work, movement of capital, etc. in the making of the global world.

How has globalization changed the world we live in today?

In general, globalization reduces the cost of manufacturing. This means that companies can offer goods to consumers at a lower cost. And the average cost of goods is a fairly important aspect that contributes to an increase in the standard of living. And today due to which consumers have access to a wide variety of goods as well.

What effect did the potato have on the lives of the poorest people in Europe?

New potato crops made a big difference to the lives of the poor in Europe as they ate better and lived longer. And the poorest farmers in Ireland became so dependent on it that when a disease destroyed the potato crop in the mid-1840s, thousands of people there starved to death.

What are the benefits of Globalization?

It has many benefits, such as –
1. Access to Foreign Cultures
2. Better standard of living
3. Emergence of new talent
4. High standard of living etc.

What are the different types of Globalisation?

Political, economic and cultural globalization are its main types.

4.9/5 - (12 votes)

Leave a Comment